# Dispute process flow
Each card scheme has their own set of processing rules and flow when it comes to the raising and subsequent management of disputes. However in general the process flow across all card schemes would be as follows:
|Also commonly referred to as a 'chargeback', a dispute refers to the official process that arises when a cardholder challenges a transaction by going to their bank rather than directly to the merchant.
|Financial institution owning the cardholders' bank account where the money is transferred from as part of the payment process. So called because they "issue" the cards
|The card scheme provides the logo on the card and sits in the middle of every transaction providing services to acquirers and issuers. Examples are Visa, Mastercard, JCB, Discover and Amex plus many more
|Financial institution owning the merchant's bank account where money is transferred to as part of the payment process.
|A business that takes payments from a cardholder in exchange for goods or services. This might be a large organisation with many outlets, or a single one-off store.
|A consumer using a card in order to purchase goods or services from a merchant.
|This is the action where the acquirer/merchant respond to the dispute
|Also known as PreArbitration. This is the next cycle in the dispute process. This is where the Issuer has reviewed the response evidence with their cardholder and want to pursue the dispute
|Also known as Arbitation. This is the next and final cycle in the dispute process. This is where the Issuer has reviewed the PreFiling response evidence with their cardholder and want to pursue the dispute. This is where the card scheme will review both sets of evidence (issuer/cardholder and acquirer/merchant) and assigns liability
# Scheme Time frames
A key part of managing disputes is to be able to quickly and efficiently respond to each one within the time frames allocated by the card schemes.